Recently, I visited two ancient burial places. It was only until a while later that I reflected on the diverging philosophies behind them. (Warning: Readers may find the next paragraph disturbing. Proceed with caution.)
The first location was in a 16th century convent on the island of Ischia (off the coast of Naples). When a nun died, her body was placed on a stone seat (see picture). The body was left to decompose slowly as body fluids were collected in a container placed below the seat. When only bones were left, these were moved to an ossuary where all the skeletons of the deceased nuns were heaped together .
Why, oh, why did they do that? Translating from the visitor’s guide:
This macabre practice found its basis in the necessity of demonstrating to the utmost level the uselessness of the body as a mere container for the spirit. The refusal of an individual burial further emphasised this conviction.
Moving on to the second burial site, the catacombs of St Callixtus in Rome (sorry, no photos). These, according to our tour guide, are the oldest catacombs in Rome and were in use between the 2nd and 4th centuries. Unlike other catacombs in modern-day Turkey, the Roman ones were not used as dwelling places. Believers would bury their dead there, and occasionally gather for prayer there.
At the time, the prevailing way of disposing of a corpse was cremation, and the urns containing the ashes would be placed in niches (see right) in the town’s necropolis.
The Christians didn’t think that they should follow the pagan way. They would wrap their dead in a shroud and place the body in the earth, in a horizontal position. They invented a new word for this strange burial place of theirs—the word we translate ‘cemetery’. The Greek word translates roughly as ‘a sleeping place’.
If I had to choose, I think I’d have chosen to live in the 2nd century. I love it that those early Christians sought to be distinct from their surrounding culture both in life and in death. I love that they weren’t influenced by pagan dualistic philosophies (spirit=good, body=bad) like those nuns centuries later. I hope that I too can find inoffensive and yet inescapable ways of demonstrating my faith in a God who raises the dead.
I’d given it a quick once-over and was ready to move on to something else when I felt a nudge to “look” for myself in each category (just another sign of my self-absorption). I started at the top (gender) and worked my way anti-clockwise. By the time I got to ‘nutrition’, I was under conviction.
How quickly I forgot that just a year ago, a lot of what I’ve been complaining about was nowhere in sight. How easily I forgot all that the Lord has done for me. And I’m grateful that He’s still mindful of me, even to the point of using unusual means to get the focus off of what I think I lack and onto what I already have!
In my former church in Rome, we used the Southern Baptist hymnal (can I get an ‘Amen’? 🙂 ). The set-up was such that, unless there was a large crowd, each worshipper could have a hymnbook all to themselves. I noticed, however, a certain segment of the population who tended to forego this privilege and it was then that the hymnbook index was born.
The index takes two values: 0 and 1 (or no and yes, respectively). It only measured one thing: whether a married couple sitting in close proximity would share a hymnbook. In my very unscientific observation and subsequent conclusion, those who shared a hymnal appeared to have happier marriages than those who didn’t.
At my current church we have a projector and so the hymnbook index doesn’t apply. I was reminded of it this past Sunday, though. I sat behind a couple in their late 30s/ early 40s, who leaned into each other throughout the service. At one point I wondered whether they were holding hands. It wasn’t hard to tell that, even after 4 kids (I saw them) and over a decade of life together, there was still a fire in their marriage.
I’ve had a chance to observe not a few marriages. There were those which, unless someone told you or you connected the names, you’d probably never guess that the two people were married to each other. On the opposite end of the spectrum are those in which the two partners are virtually inseparable. I believe a happy medium is ideal. Now of course, my marriage is perfect, seeing as it exists only in my imagination 😉 Seriously though, it is encouraging for not-yet-marrieds like me to watch those who have gone before and are succeeding.
“Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.”
Growing up, I detested history. I didn’t see why I had to learn about people I cared nothing for, and most of all, I had no patience to memorise all those dates (which would inevitably turn up on some exam). I escaped taking the subject in the last two years of high school only to have an unavoidable head-on collision with it in university. Incidentally, one of the first YouTube channels I subscribed to earlier this year was Crash Course World History. I’ve come full-circle. (Maybe it’s because I don’t have to sit history exams any more) 🙂
That said, I probably wouldn’t have looked into the history of the Crusades out of my own volition. In part, it would be because I wouldn’t know where to start looking: it’s not a topic we Christians like to talk about. Good for me that a follower of this blog, Eric Costanzo, recently completed a 6-part series on the Crusades:
(Yes, I know my little summary statements are rather negative. Sorry.)
Some quick, random, incomplete observations:
Those Christians living 1,000 years ago needed to hear the quotation at the head of this post. Despite the slim successes they had, they kept on assembling armies to head East.
I’m struck by how quickly noble intentions were replaced by base and vile ones. Is it possible that we do things today under a thin veil of upholding Christ’s glory?
The crusading armies, it seems to me, engaged in selective reading of their Bibles. (I smiled at the report of the re-enactment of marching around Jericho in the first crusade.) It looks like they missed the part about Christ’s kingdom not being of this world (John 18:36).
The Latin Christians were, as I understand it, reacting to a loss of power and possessions. Christendom was the dominant force in Western Europe and the concept of being a powerless minority (as in New Testament times) was utterly unknown.
As Christians in the 21st century see the reversal of society to pre-Christian, pagan norms I hope and pray that we would respond in a manner worthy of the Saviour we profess.
This is a post in which I try to convey my excitement over Dropbox, Evernote, OneNote and Pocket. That list is not only alphabetical, but also happens to be the chronological order in which I began to use these useful tools. Below, I’ll simply relate how I’m using them.
Dropbox – “Simplify your life”
From Wikipedia: Dropbox is a file hosting service that offers cloud storage, file synchronization and client software.
I joined Dropbox months after I was first invited to use it. I just didn’t think I needed it. And while I’m still not a heavy user, it is a great tool to have on hand when I need it.
Before, when I needed to access files while at different physical locations or on different computers, I’d use my trusty USB thumb drive. Other than not having one when you need it, the thing that bothers me most about thumb drives is the whole process of using them: plug in (wait a few seconds) – transfer files – eject (wait a few seconds) – repeat.
When I got my current computer I had to transfer files between three computers (one old and temperamental, another that I used as a temporary replacement and the new one). The file transfer process was much simplified by using the Dropbox uploader.
Dropbox’s best feature (for me) is that you can link to any file in it. This is handy for sharing files with others, but there’s more! Here on WordPress.com, one needs a space upgrade to be able to upload audio files, for example. I can upload a file to Dropbox and embed it here, all for free!
Microsoft’s SkyDrive and Google’s Drive offer similar online file storage services. But since only Dropbox was there when I really needed it (close to 18 months ago), it will always have a special place in my heart 🙂
Evernote – “Remember everything”
From Wikipedia: Evernote is a suite of software and services designed for notetaking and archiving.
Evernote came pre-installed on my current computer, but it was two months before I opened it. In the first few months I didn’t use it much, but now I use it every single day.
Before, when I came across something interesting on the internet, I’d save the page as a PDF or as a TXT file. For the short while it existed, I used Google Notebook for clipping information on the web. Now I use Evernote, whether to clip an entire page or blog article or just a sentence or two.
Evernote has also simplified my blogging life. For example, a while back I did a series of Advent hymns. To select titles, I sat down with the hymnal at church and made a list of approximately 10 candidates using the Evernote app on my phone. That information was then available on my computer once I synced my account. In the past, I’d have had to write the titles on paper—with the inherent risks of losing the list or forgetting that I had made it.
The feature that has of late excited me is the ability to attach files of any kind within an Evernote note. I’m one of a team of Bible study leaders at church, and when it’s my turn I like to go over the passage repeatedly during the preceding week. Using the Evernote browser extension, I clip the text of the Bible passage and then attach an audio recording to the passage. Voilà! When I have a couple of free minutes, I can listen to and read the Bible passage simultaneously! This could also be useful when memorising Scripture.
From Wikipedia: Microsoft OneNote is a computer program for free-form information gathering and multi-user collaboration.
I started using OneNote at the same time I started with Evernote. They have overlapping functionality as well as distinctions, and not being able to decide on only one, I use them both 😀
While I use Evernote mostly for works-in-progress, OneNote is more for archival storage. The process goes something like this: Clip to Evernote – blog it – send to OneNote. One reason is that Evernote’s browser extensions make clipping really easy. Another reason is that OneNote is tied to SkyDrive, where I have 25GB of storage space. (I don’t know what the limit of my Evernote account is, which probably means it’s generous.)
A feature I really love is that contents of a OneNote page do not have to be linear, which is perfect for placing panels side-by-side. For this reason, I use OneNote to gather all my notes when preparing to lead Bible study, as in the image below:
Pocket (formerly Read It Later)
Pocket’s former name is self-explanatory. I guess they changed it when they realised that people were saving videos and other stuff you don’t read.
Before, when I found an interesting item on the internet that I didn’t have time to read/watch right at that moment I’d (a) bookmark it, and prove the adage “out of sight, out of mind” to be true, (b) save it to Evernote, or (c) leave the browser tab open (sometimes for days). Now I save it to Pocket (I especially love that the Google Chrome extension has a keyboard shortcut–nerd delight!).
One of Pocket’s really thoughtful features is that it remembers your reading position between sessions, saving users from scrolling down to find where they’d left off. And if that’s not enough, this also works between devices—I can start reading something on my phone and pick up at the following paragraph on the computer without any hassle at all.
I surprised myself in that I actually do get round to reading/viewing the stuff I save to Pocket, mostly just before falling asleep at night. I’ve had Pocket for about a month now, so maybe the novelty will have worn off six months from now. Or maybe not.
But I don’t want to keep track of yet another account and password!
I totally understand. That’s the same reason I held off using all of these tools. Except for OneNote, I had to create new accounts with each of these services. If you’re tired of juggling multiples logins, you may want to try LastPass (I haven’t used it). Or you may want to try the tips in this article.
For me, the extra accounts have been worth it. Your mileage, as always, may vary.
A little over two weeks ago my favourite search engine (favourite because I’m too lazy to try the others) rolled out voice search and search by image. I tried them out so that, if you’ve not yet got a chance to use them, you can raise or lower your expectations accordingly 🙂
I wasn’t expecting great success with voice search, considering my Kenyan accent and all. I was pleasantly surprised!
Searches that went well
These were simple queries which yielded what I was looking for as the first result:
The people behind voice search recommend it for recipes:
Conversions worked fantastically!
Be sure not to leave out the word ‘degrees’:
Searches that kind of went well
My search term wasn’t the first, but almost:
I was getting flustered so I went looking for the introductory video I’d watched:
Searches that were epic fails
The nice engineer in the video (or maybe the text on the page, I don’t recall) said that I could do translations with voice search. I beg to differ:
I tried again:
They also said voice search was good for long queries:
Woe is my non-American accent:
How about a long query made up of simple words, in this case the fragment of a hymn that’s been floating through my head?
Here’s what I was searching for: “What more can He say than to you He has said, to you who for refuge to Jesus have fled”.
Just because I could, I tried some foreign place names. I tried to look for this cemetery in Paris.
I searched for this tourist trap with a passable French accent:
My Italian accent is way better than my American one, so maybe I’ll use voice search more when it expands geographically. Or maybe I’ll just stick to typing in stuff.